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Wed, 09 Feb 2023 06:18:00 -0600entext/htmlhttps://www.uwyo.edu/utc/professional-exams/Killexams : RSA: NSA Testing Motorola Android Smartphones for Top-Secret Calls
Who says Android is the most insecure mobile OS around? Not the National Security Agency, which is conducting a pilot of 100 Motorola smartphones running the Android OS that it says are already good enough for its employees to make top-secret and classified phone calls from the field.
"There are vulnerabilities in every OS," said Margaret Salter, a technical director in the NSA's Information Assurance Directorate (IAD), during a talk Wednesday morning at the RSA Conference in San Francisco. "The beauty of our strategy is that we looked at all of the components, and then took stuff out of the (Android) OS we didn't need. This makes the attack surface very small."
For the NSA, the open-source nature of Android tipped the balance in its favor. "It's not because iOS was lousy, no. It's because of certain controls we needed. We were able to make some modifications to Android. Android had that freedom," she said. Does that mean the NSA is wedded to the Google OS? "It's not our intention to use only Android."
Since the NSA's founding in 1952, the IDA had been the sole creator of proprietary equipment used by U.S. Government agents for secure communications. The disadvantage of this approach was that it was more expensive, "took us years to approve a device," said Salter, and also resulted in gear that "though incredibly secure, was not incredibly easy to use."
The Android smartphone pilot, nicknamed Project Fishbowl, is part of the IAD's move away from GOTS (Government-Off-The-Shelf) technology towards best-of-breed COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) gear that the IAD will customize and integrate.
But the IAD's attempts "to go shopping" for such technology were severely hampered by a lack of interoperability with encryption and other security technologies.
"We wanted everything to be plug and play. And. That. Was. Hard," Salter said. That forced the NSA in some instances, when choosing software, to sacrifice performance in favor of broader support.
She urged vendors interested in supplying the NSA to visit www.nsa.gov/ia/programs, where they can view the NSA's requirements. "We need a partnership with industry," she said.
To cloak the voice calls, the NSA uses two independent layers of encryption, one at the VoIP layer, and the other at the VPN layer. The NSA "put a big X through an SSL VPN client" because, according to Salter, "there is no such thing as an SSL interoperable VPN standard."
Moreover, all voice calls using the Android phones are routed through the NSA's servers. That helps secure the calls so that the phones can be used with any carrier.
The final layers of security include a pair of authentication certificates residing on the handsets, as well as requiring users to log-in with a password before they can use the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) server. This gives the NSA "good assurance to know who are the users," she said.
Doubly encrypting the calls plus the extra routing did make it initially hard to maintain good voice quality, said Salter. But as of today, there "is only a little bit of delay" in the calls. "You'd only notice it if you were in the same room as the caller and could see his lips moving. But I hope you're not using our phone in that context."
Using the phones overseas does add "some risk, but we also believe that we've spent a lot of effort to completely minimize this risk," Salter said, without going into details. "We actually have more trouble getting the phones to run in certain countries."
With the NSA satisfied with Fishbowl's handling of voice calls, Salter is already looking forward to testing the use of the phones to send and receive data and also do other forms of Unified Communications. Plans are to keep most data on the server.
To harden the handsets, the NSA had "to make changes to the key store" as well as "make a police app that keeps an eye on everything," Salter said.
Other than that, the NSA hasn't built any apps yet, said Salter. The Department of Defense's IT branch, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), may both emulate the NSA pilot and build apps that the NSA could leverage, she said. If so, those apps would be deployed through an internal Enterprise App Store.
Wed, 29 Feb 2012 11:28:00 -0600entext/htmlhttps://www.zdnet.com/paid-content/article/rsa-nsa-testing-motorola-android-smartphones-for-top-secret-calls/Killexams : AUS v RSA: First Test, Day 1 HighlightsNo result found, try new keyword!A NOTE ABOUT RELEVANT ADVERTISING: We collect information about the content (including ads) you use across this site and use it to make both advertising and content more relevant to you on our ...Fri, 16 Dec 2023 18:36:00 -0600en-AUtext/htmlhttps://www.foxsports.com.au/video/cricket/cricket/aus-v-rsa-first-test-day-1-highlights!839452?nk=50d2960bab7cf8215a8381300f4259b9-1676849477Killexams : RSA’s demise from quantum attacks is very much exaggerated, expert says
Three weeks ago, panic swept across some corners of the security world after researchers discovered a breakthrough that, at long last, put the cracking of the widely used RSA encryption scheme within reach by using quantum computing.
Scientists and cryptographers have known for two decades that a factorization method known as Shor’s algorithm makes it theoretically possible for a quantum computer with sufficient resources to break RSA. That’s because the secret prime numbers that underpin the security of an RSA key are easy to calculate using Shor’s algorithm. Computing the same primes using classical computing takes billions of years.
The only thing holding back this doomsday scenario is the massive amount of computing resources required for Shor’s algorithm to break RSA keys of sufficient size. The current estimate is that breaking a 1,024-bit or 2,048-bit RSA key requires a quantum computer with vast resources. Specifically, those resources are about 20 million qubits and about eight hours of them running in superposition. (A qubit is a basic unit of quantum computing, analogous to the binary bit in classical computing. But whereas a classic binary bit can represent only a single binary value such as a 0 or 1, a qubit is represented by a superposition of multiple possible states.)
The paper, published three weeks ago by a team of researchers in China, reported finding a factorization method that could break a 2,048-bit RSA key using a quantum system with just 372 qubits when it operated using thousands of operation steps. The finding, if true, would have meant that the fall of RSA encryption to quantum computing could come much sooner than most people believed.
RSA’s demise is greatly exaggerated
At the Enigma 2023 Conference in Santa Clara, California, on Tuesday, computer scientist and security and privacy expert Simson Garfinkel assured researchers that the demise of RSA was greatly exaggerated. For the time being, he said, quantum computing has few, if any, practical applications.
“In the near term, quantum computers are good for one thing, and that is getting papers published in prestigious journals,” Garfinkel, co-author with Chris Hoofnagle of the 2021 book Law and Policy for the Quantum Age, told the audience. “The second thing they are reasonably good at, but we don’t know for how much longer, is they’re reasonably good at getting funding.”
Even when quantum computing becomes advanced enough to provide useful applications, the applications are likely for simulating physics and chemistry, and performing computer optimizations that don’t work well with classical computing. Garfinkel said that the dearth of useful applications in the foreseeable future might bring on a “quantum winter,” similar to the multiple rounds of artificial intelligence winters before AI finally took off.
The problem with the paper published earlier this month was its reliance on Schnorr's algorithm (not to be confused with Shor’s algorithm), which was developed in 1994. Schnorr’s algorithm is a classical computation based on lattices, which are mathematical structures that have many applications in constructive cryptography and cryptanalysis. The authors who devised Schnorr’s algorithm said it could enhance the use of the heuristic quantum optimization method called QAOA.
Within short order, a host of researchers pointed out fatal flaws in Schnorr’s algorithm that have all but debunked it. Specifically, critics said there was no evidence supporting the authors’ claims of Schnorr’s algorithm achieving polynomial time, as opposed to the exponential time achieved with classical algorithms.
The research paper from three weeks ago seemed to take Schnorr's algorithm at face value. Even when it’s supposedly enhanced using QAOA—something there’s currently no support for—it’s questionable whether it provides any performance boost.
“All told, this is one of the most actively misleading quantum computing papers I’ve seen in 25 years, and I’ve seen … many,” Scott Aaronson, a computer scientist at the University of Texas at Austin and director of its Quantum Information Center, wrote. “Having said that, this actually isn’t the first time I’ve encountered the strange idea that the exponential quantum speedup for factoring integers, which we know about from Shor’s algorithm, should somehow ‘rub off’ onto quantum optimization heuristics that embody none of the real insights of Shor’s algorithm, as if by sympathetic magic.”
In geological time, yes; in our lifetime, no
On Tuesday, Japanese technology company Fujitsu published a press release that provided further reassurance that the cryptocalypse isn't nigh. Fujitsu researchers, the press release claimed, found that cracking an RSA key would require a fault-tolerant quantum computer with a scale of roughly 10,000 qubits and 2.23 trillion quantum gates, and even then, the computation would require about 104 days.
Attempts to obtain the research weren’t immediately successful, and Fujitsu researchers weren’t available by this story's publication. That makes it impossible for fellow researchers to know precisely what the findings are or how significant they are.
“For example, when [the Fujitsu researchers] say 10,000 qubits in the press release, do they mean logical or physical qubits?” Samuel Jaques, a doctoral student at the University of Cambridge, wrote in an email. “In my view, the best estimate for quantum factoring is still [Craig] Gidney and [Martin] Ekerå from 2020, who estimate that factoring RSA-2048 would need 20 million physical qubits and 8 hours. If Fujitsu's result drops the physical qubit count from 20 million to 10,000, that's a huge breakthrough; if instead they need 10,000 logical qubits, then that's much more than Gidney and Ekerå so I would need to check carefully to see why.”
Update:In an email sent after this post went live, one of the Fujitsu researchers, Tetsuya Izu, senior director of data & security research, wrote:
During the trials, we used a Shor’s algorithm and created a program to generate quantum circuits. As a next step, we used this program to generate quantum circuits for composite numbers of 9 bits and smaller, and checked real operations (integer factorization). We then evaluated the necessary computational resources of the above mentioned quantum circuits and made estimations for the case of integer factorization of 2,048 bits composite numbers. For this reason, our estimation also uses logical qubits. We are still finalizing the research paper and unfortunately cannot provide it today. We will share the paper with you as soon as it is available.
That leads us back to the Enigma Conference and Garfinkel, who, like Jaques, said the Gidney and Ekerå findings are the best-known estimate for the breaking of RSA. Asked to respond to the oft-repeated statement that humanity is at the precipice of a large quantum computer, Garfinkel responded:
“If by large-scale you mean something that’s big enough to crack an RSA key, what do you mean humanity is on the precipice? In geological time we certainly are. In terms of the duration of the republic, sure. But in our lifetimes?”
Even when the day comes that there’s a quantum computer with the power envisioned by Gidney and Ekerå, the notion that RSA will fall in one stroke is misleading. That’s because it would take this 20 million-qubit quantum system eight hours in constant superposition to crack a single encryption key. That would certainly be catastrophic since someone might be able to use the capability to cryptographically sign malicious updates with a Microsoft or Apple key and distribute them to millions of people.
But even then, the scenario that nation-states are storing all encrypted communications in a database and will decrypt them all in bulk once a quantum computer becomes available is unrealistic, given the number of keys and the resources required to crack them all.
Over the past five years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has run a search for new cryptographic algorithms that aren’t vulnerable to Shor’s algorithm. The process is far from finished. Last year, a candidate that had made it to the fourth round was taken out of the running after it fell to an attack that used only classical computing.
Once a post-quantum replacement is named, Garfinkel warned, “There’s going to be this mad rush to sell new things to the government so the government can immediately adopt these new algorithms. There’s just so much money to be made selling things to the government.”
Despite his insistence that the world is still decades away from being able to crack an RSA key, Garfinkel left himself wiggle room. At the same time, he said too many people focus on the risk posed by Shor’s algorithm without considering the possibility that RSA could just as easily fall from other factorization attacks posed by classical computers.
“If I was at CISA [Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency], I wouldn’t feel the need to say, ‘Don’t worry, it’s decades away’ only to risk the entire security of the United States,” he said. “But maybe we shouldn’t be moving to just post-quantum algorithms. Maybe we should be using the post-quantum algorithms and RSA in parallel because there might be a problem with the post-quantum algorithms.”
Wed, 25 Jan 2023 11:21:00 -0600Dan Goodinen-ustext/htmlhttps://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2023/01/fear-not-rsa-encryption-wont-fall-to-quantum-computing-anytime-soon/Killexams : Update on inaugural crewed retro race
On September 8, 1973, the first ever Whitbread Round the World Race set out. Seventeen teams, virtually all amateur, in a mix of production boats and dedicated racing machines faced the unknown in this world’s first fully crewed challenge around the globe. Sadly, some were lost at sea and many retired with broken masts and boats.
Over the years, it became the Volvo Ocean Race for elite sailors and now The Ocean Race in foiling IMOCAs. In just seven months, 18 yachts will step back to 1973 and set out in the Ocean Globe Race celebrating the 50th anniversary of that original Whitbread, using similar yachts on a similar course under similar retro conditions of the 1970s.
Many entrants are still in the shed for refit. Pre-registration entry details must be submitted on April 1, and there is a long list of requirements to be met including safety and medical training, crew qualifications, and the use of the retro gear including radio direction finders, sextant, and collecting cassette music tapes.
A critical piece of retro equipment is the HF SSB radio and Weather fax, replacing the usual satellite gear now banned, which are needed for long-distance ship to ship/shore communications and to receive up to date meteorological information.
Many entrants have faced challenges making the start. Some found their refit longer, harder, and more expensive than originally planned. One severely damaged his yacht while setting out on crew training. For others, their personal situation changed over the years.
Of the remaining 18 entrants, half have not started sailing their qualifiers, while the most advanced teams are already on the water, building mileage, breaking stuff, testing systems, even sometimes bringing silverware home!
Pen Duick and l’Esprit d’Equipe have been quite good at that game, adding to their 2023 mileage with the 2023 RORC Transatlantic in January and the 2023 RORC Caribbean 600 starting February 20 before heading to New York and crossing back to France.
Mileage is the best way to test all systems, validating technical choices while qualifying crew for the upcoming round the world adventure. The Pen Duick VI crew also plans to pay a visit to a faraway location that built the black boat’s legend: Newport, Rhode Island.
“We’re very happy with the boat and I’m delighted with the crew,” said skipper Marie Tabarly. “The choice was hard with so many candidates and a few chosen ones, but we now have a really strong team. Between the Caribbean 600 and New York, we are taking Pen Duick to Newport where she has not returned since her victory in the 1976 OSTAR.
“Ken Read, the North Sails President, graciously offered to organize an event with the legendary New York Yacht Club to celebrate her return and drum-up interest in this retro round the world race.”
Others have chosen another ocean classic favorite to cross the Atlantic while testing boats and crew in the Southern Atlantic: the Cape to Rio Race. The Swan 65 entry Translated 9 (previously ADC Accutrac, Clare Francis, Whitbread 1977) led by Marco Trombetti (ITA) and the Malingri family finished a respectable 6th place and the Swan 53 of Gerrit Louw (RSA) and Allspice Yachting had an eventful crossing, finishing 10th while breaking quite a few things on board, learning valuable lessons in the process.
“We broke nearly every piece of modern equipment,” noted Louw. “The fridge and freezer broke on day two, then the rebuilt hydraulic vang on day three, the sat phone on day five with no weather info, before the electronics including loch, wind, speed went dark right after that. We sailed like 1973 with very limited information: sextant, barometer, HF radio, and a lot of observation and it worked well.
“I am very satisfied with the experience, we broke what had to, we tested the crew in tough conditions and have built considerable experience on the boat. I am very happy we had this race on the program, it forced us out of the shed into the water. Refits are never fully done and at some point you need to go sailing!”
Others did not have the time to cross an ocean and back, so instead went into winter storms to test the boat and themselves in race-like conditions. Such was 2023 for White Shadow, just back from their qualifier, taking the Swan 57 out of the Med into the Atlantic with some serious heavy weather experience in the process.
“We did not have time to cross the full Atlantic and back, and we wanted to sail in adverse conditions both upwind and downwind,” noted White Shadow’s Jean Christophe Petit (ESP). “Our main goal was to test the boat and crew in total isolation, and everything worked for crew shifts, to desalination and the use of the retro gear. We did all this in very adverse conditions which enabled us to test the boat and crew to the limit.”
Meanwhile, Team Futuro, one of the first entries into the OGR led by Dominique Dubois (FRA), suffered a serious setback but has not thrown in the towel. Dubois, who built the world’s fastest racing yachts in his yard Carboman Multiplast, was one of the first teams ready, carefully planning his campaign and exit from the yard to focus fully on his round the world dream.
He chose the Swan 651 for its offshore pedigree and large accommodations, and had an extensive refit done at the yard after sailing her back from the Caribbean. The boat was ready, the crew had gone through their qualifiers, the boat was on the hard for some comfort improvement when earlier this year the storm Gérard blew the yacht off her cradle crashing hard onto the concrete.
The clock is ticking and repairing the 651 proved a double challenge financially, as the repairs cost a lot more than the value of the boat, and in terms of agenda, as the boat may not be ready in time. The skipper has also been looking at other yachts to replace his broken dream and finally found a Swan 65 on the other side of the channel – Evrika from previous UK OGR entry Richard Little.
“I know the Swan 65 well, having owned one for several years, my crew and I have a lot of mileage on this yacht,” said Dubois. “I came across Evrika in Antigua in 2008 and was lucky enough to visit her. She is to me the best one there is in the world, and I am delighted that Richard and myself could come to an agreement. Team Futuro is back on Evrika!”
Another French entry is driving the numbers up as Project Triana, led by the French media entrepreneur Jean d’Arthuys (FRA), is the latest entry in Adventure Classe with a Swan 53. d’Arthuys, who has a busy career from television to vineyards, is no stranger to sailing having crewed with multihull expert and Jules Vernes guru Olivier de Kersauzon but felt this was the right opportunity to revive his dream to race around the world.
“It’s hard to explain the call of the sea, it takes hold of you with a mixture of fear and irrepressible attraction,” shared d’Arthuys. “It’s also an old dream from my youth. I had already set up a project 30 years ago, but it didn’t work out due to a lack of sponsors.
“But the idea of returning to the original format, mixing ocean racing and human adventure, makes the race accessible again and creates a strong interest in this next edition. This format slows down time and the madness of technology, creates the framework for an extraordinary human adventure, in one of the most beautiful landscapes in the world, the ocean.”
d’Arthuys brings plenty of round the world experience on board and in his shore team. First mate Sébastien Audigane is well known in the professional French sailing community, with many ocean miles and a Jules Vernes round the world record under his belt.
A recruitment campaign for crew is underway looking for crew, cooks, doctors, inspired media men and women to make a film of the race, all talents are welcome. Motivation, personality and commitment to the project will be the main criteria for the selection of team members, although some experience and speaking French is required. See the OGR website for entrant details and contact Triana Team Maria to apply.
The 2023-24 Ocean Globe Race (OGR) is a fully crewed, retro race, in the spirit of the 1973 Whitbread Round the World Race, marking the 50th Anniversary of the original event. Starting in Europe on September 10, the OGR is a 27,000-mile sprint around the Globe, divided into four legs that passes south of the three great Capes. The fleet is divided in three classes with stop-overs in Capt Town, South Africa; Auckland, New Zealand; and Punta del Este, Uruguay before returning to Europe in April 2024.
Wed, 15 Feb 2023 05:39:00 -0600en-UStext/htmlhttps://www.sailingscuttlebutt.com/2023/02/15/update-on-inaugural-crewed-retro-race/Killexams : 6 Best At-Home Testosterone Test Kits in 2023
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We do the research so you can find trusted products for your health and wellness.
Our pick for best overall at-home testosterone kit is LetsGetChecked, but Verisana gets nods for most affordable, and Cerascreen for most personalized results.
A quick look at the best at-home testosterone kits
Low testosterone levels can occur in people of any age. An underlying health problem like a pituitary gland disorder or an injury can reduce testosterone levels. Cancer treatments may also be a cause.
One way to check your testosterone levels is to take an at-home testosterone test. In this article, we’ll go over our picks for some of the best at-home testosterone test kits. We’ll also cover the symptoms and diagnosis of low testosterone.
Testosterone is a sex hormone produced in the testicles and ovaries. Production of testosterone ramps up during puberty and begins to gradually decline in adulthood.
It’s often considered the “male” sex hormone, but people of all sexes and genders produce testosterone. People assigned male at birth (AMAB) produce more testosterone than people assigned female at birth (AFAB), though.
development and function of reproductive organs, including the penis, testicles, and ovaries
voice deepening during puberty
development of facial hair and body hair as well as the progression of balding later in life
development, growth, and strength of bones
muscle mass and body fat distribution
sex drive (libido)
production of sperm
production of red blood cells
Testosterone levels may also play a role in regulating your mood and supporting cognitive function, though research is still inconclusive on exactly how this works. A decrease in testosterone levels is a normal part of aging for people assigned male at birth, especially after age 30.
When your testosterone levels are too high (hypergonadism) or too low (hypogonadism), you may experience uncomfortable symptoms. A blood or saliva test can check the amount of testosterone your body is making.
In males, testosterone levels should generally fall between 300–1,000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL), or 10–35 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L).
In females, the testosterone levels produced in the ovaries are quite low, between 15–70 ng/dL, or .5–2.4 nmol/L.
You may be tempted to test your testosterone levels using one of the home testosterone testing products you’ve seen advertised. Before you try a test kit, make sure you understand:
how it works
how reliable it is
what information it will supply you
what to do with your results
For the brands listed, we reviewed each of their medical and business practices, including:
their ratings, reviews, and accreditations from the Better Business Bureau
the health claims they make, and whether or not they’re acceptable and accurate
the accuracy of results and if they provide assistance after results are delivered
Many products are available for testing your hormone levels at home before seeing your doctor. All of these examine either your saliva, urine, or blood. How you collect your demo and how many samples you take may vary depending on the product.
All home test kits require you to mail your collections to a certified lab for testing. You may get the results within a few days or a few weeks.
LetsGetChecked offers testosterone testing kits that use a finger prick to measure testosterone levels in the blood. After you collect your sample, you send it to the lab on the same day you collect it using prepaid shipping supplies.
Within 2 to 5 days, your results will be available to you online. If you have questions, there’s a team of nurses available 24/7 to help explain your results.
LetsGetChecked offers four at-home tests that include testosterone testing:
Testosterone Test ($69): only testosterone testing
Male Hormone Test ($139): testosterone testing, sex hormone binding globulin, and free androgen index
Male Hormone Advanced ($179): contains all from Male Hormone Test kit, plus Prolactin and Estradiol results
Male Hormone Complete ($199): contains all from Male Hormone Advanced kit, plus Cortisol results
myLAB Box offers an at-home men’s health test that measures testosterone levels, as well as cortisol, estradiol, and DHEA. Like other tests in this list, you collect your samples — both saliva and a finger prick — and send them off to their labs. The company claims the finger prick is 100% pain-free, and results should arrive online within 5 days of sending results to the lab.
Everlywell’s at-home testosterone kit tests your saliva to see if you’re producing the average amount of testosterone for your age. After you collect your saliva sample, you mail it off to the Everlywell labs in prepaid shipping, and within days you’ll receive online results that indicate whether your testosterone levels are normal, low, or high.
In addition to their testosterone kit, Everlywell has a more extensive Men’s Health kit at a higher price point.
Use code “HEALTHLINE25” for 25% off.
Most affordable at-home testosterone kit: Verisana
If you’re experiencing symptoms of depression, potency issues, weight gain, increased body fat, or fatigue, Verisana’s testosterone testing kit might be for you. Verisana uses saliva to test testosterone levels. Once you collect your demo and mail it to the lab, Verisana will send you a detailed report with your results.
Verisana offers a few tests that measure testosterone, including:
The Roman testosterone testing kit is provided through Ro, a telemedicine men’s health company. It may be a good choice for someone who is intimidated by or unfamiliar with taking their own blood samples.
Step-by-step video guidance is available to help you through the demo collection process, and you can connect with live agents if you need additional assistance. When your results have been analyzed, you’ll receive an emailed PDF report — usually within about four business days.
Cerascreen offers quick and easy testing by using saliva to measure testosterone levels. Once you take your saliva sample, you set up an online account with Cerascreen and answer a questionnaire that will help supply you personalized recommendations with your results. Results take 3 to 5 days to return to you via an online portal.
You may need to check your testosterone levels if you’re experiencing any symptoms associated with low T, regardless of your age or sex.
Before you start T therapy, your healthcare provider will need to check your base levels of the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen so you can take an appropriate dose of T to achieve the level of masculinization you want.
Current guidelines suggest getting your levels checked every 3 months for the first year that you’re on HRT and every 6–12 months afterward.
Monitoring your testosterone levels is important because taking too much testosterone can have adverse effects like metabolic problems, while doses that are too low may induce a hypogonadism-like state and could cause significant losses in bone density.
Not to mention, if your testosterone levels aren’t high enough, you may not experience the masculinization you desire or you may notice changes happening very slowly.
Remember, though, that it can take several years for the maximum effects of T therapy to develop. Plus, not everyone taking T will experience the same effects — everybody is different!
It’s important to choose a home testosterone kit produced by a reputable brand that delivers results on a timeline that works for you. You might also want to think about costs, collection methods, and whether the brand connects you with healthcare professionals to go over your results. Some other qualities to look out for are:
Results deliverytime: Some at-home testosterone kits take longer to return your results than others. If you’re experiencing uncomfortable symptoms that could be associated with low T, you may want to spring for a kit that offers faster results.
Collection methods: Testosterone levels can be tested in your saliva or your blood. While blood tests are considered more reliable, most people have an easier time collecting saliva samples. Be sure to think through which method you’d prefer.
Access to support: Some companies connect you with in-house healthcare professionals, who can help you decipher your test results and talk over next steps if your levels are out of the normal range. Ask yourself how confident you are in your ability to understand your results and determine whether this kind of support is important to you.
Affordability: The at-home testosterone kits on our list range from $49 to more than $200. Most insurance plans won’t cover these kits, so be sure to keep that in mind as you consider your budget.
Brand integrity: When submitting your demo for analysis, you’re trusting the lab with potentially sensitive health information. It’s important to choose a brand that you feel will respect your privacy. It may be a good idea to read reviews from real consumers before selecting a testosterone kit.
At-home testosterone tests allow you to collect your own demo and ship it back to a lab for evaluation. These test kits require you to collect either saliva or blood, and they come with everything you need to return your demo safely and securely.
Testosterone tests, in general, track the amount of free testosterone present in the demo provided. This can help supply you a better overall idea of your testosterone levels.
Blood test kits will come with a pinprick mechanism that can break the skin on your finger and allow a small amount of blood to flow.
The kit also comes with a collection vial, a biohazard/specimen bag, and a return envelope or a separate shipping label. You’ll want to collect the required amount of blood in the included vial, complete any required forms or demo labeling, and securely return your test.
Make sure to read through the instructions and take any necessary precautions to make sure that you don’t accidentally damage or taint your blood sample. This could potentially skew your results.
Saliva test kits are very similar to blood test kits in how you collect, label, and ship your sample. The advantage of a saliva test is that it doesn’t require a finger pinprick, which is good news for those who are uncomfortable with needles.
However, the effectiveness of testing saliva over blood is up for discussion. A 2013 study found that saliva test results were fairly accurate and reliable for testing testosterone levels.
However, research from 2014 found that saliva tests were less accurate than blood samples because free testosterone could bind with saliva proteins and ultimately skew the results.
If you want to test your T levels, in general, a saliva or blood test is a good option for you. But, if you or your doctor need results that are as accurate as possible, a blood test may be your best bet.
Of course, there’s no substitute for getting tests done in person at a certified lab. This can help reduce the risk of any errors in the demo collection and evaluation process.
trouble concentrating, depression, or other mood or cognitive changes
Consider talking with a healthcare professional if you experience any of these symptoms and suspect that you may have low or decreased testosterone. Low T can be a normal part of aging, but drastic or rapid changes could indicate a health condition that may need treatment.
In adults assigned female at birth
For AFAB adults who aren’t intentionally modifying their hormone levels, research is limited into what low testosterone feels like. There also isn’t a set guideline for what constitutes low T in this population.
Some symptoms, which are largely attributed to low estrogen levels, may include:
fatigue or sluggishness
loss of bone density
lowered sex drive
problems with fertility
unintentional weight gain
mood changes, including depression
Consider talking with a healthcare professional if you experience any of these symptoms and suspect that you may have low or decreased testosterone. Again, since research is limited for low testosterone levels for AFAB adults, the symptoms could vary from those listed above.
The onset of menopause, dysfunction of the pituitary or adrenal glands, or problems with ovarian health could be causing your hormone levels to shift, and you may need to seek treatment or support managing symptoms.
If you’re taking an at-home testosterone test, the type of collection method used to test testosterone levels may vary. Different types of collection methods may include blood samples, urine samples, or saliva samples.
Testosterone levels vary throughout the day and are highest in the morning. For this reason, your test instructions may say that you should collect samples between 7:00 and 10:00 a.m.
A blood test for testosterone can tell a healthcare professional how much free testosterone is circulating in your blood. It can also show the total amount of the hormone in your body.
One study from 2016 indicates that measuring free testosterone is a better way to diagnose hypogonadism accurately.
Remember that many factors can affect total testosterone levels, and high or low levels do not necessarily indicate a clinical problem.
Some factors that could lead to decreases in T levels might include:
disorders of the testicles, pituitary gland, or brain
If you decide to measure your testosterone levels with a home kit, you should be prepared to take any necessary next steps. The laboratory results should come with an explanation of your measured testosterone level.
If your level is considered average, but you still have symptoms that concern you, it’s a good idea to talk with a healthcare professional like a doctor or endocrinologist.
If your results come back as lower than average, make an appointment to see a doctor before trying any home remedies. Over-the-counter testosterone supplements aren’t approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and could carry a risk of side effects, especially if you’re taking other medications.
Plus, at-home test kits aren’t likely as accurate as in-office lab tests. A doctor may want to double-check your levels before recommending any treatment.
Not to mention, low T can sometimes be a sign of a serious underlying medical condition. It’s important to work with a professional to rule out or treat any conditions.
If a healthcare professional diagnoses you with low T, there are several treatment options available.
Depending on the cause(s) of your low T, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes as a front-line treatment. These could include influencing your weight, switching medications, and cutting back on alcohol or tobacco.
Your healthcare provider might also suggest that you start testosterone replacement therapy, a medical intervention through which you supplement your body’s natural T levels by taking synthetic testosterone.
Some popular types of T therapy include:
Each method comes with its own risks and benefits, and some might not be available in certain areas. Talk through your options with a healthcare professional like a physician or endocrinologist to choose the type that’s right for you.
Most people with low T begin to experience symptom relief within four to six weeks of starting T therapy, though some changes like muscle mass development can take a little longer.
If you’re trans and using HRT as part of your transition, your healthcare team can adjust your dose if your levels are consistently too low or too high. Talk with your provider(s) about your dose if you’re concerned.
Are at-home testosterone tests accurate?
Before you rely on the results of a testosterone home test kit, you should be aware of the accuracy of salivary testing versus blood testing.
Testing saliva is easier and less invasive than drawing blood. Still, testosterone in saliva samples can be affected by how they’re collected and stored, so researchers are interested in whether this method is reliable.
The results and expert opinions are mixed.
Some studies and reviews suggest that saliva testing is preferable because it’s less stressful for the patient. A 2016 study concluded that saliva is a reliable method to determine testosterone levels.
But there has not been enough analysis of commercial home testing kits. Whether they deliver accurate, reliable, and unvarying results has not been confirmed.
Are at-home testosterone kits as accurate as doctor-administered testosterone tests?
Research into at-home testosterone kits is lacking. It’s unclear how accurate they are compared with tests ordered by a doctor in a lab.
However, it’s safe to say that an in-office testosterone test will be less subject to human error. Doctors, especially endocrinologists, are trained in collecting and handling samples properly.
Plus, if you discuss the results of an at-home testosterone kit with a healthcare professional, chances are they’ll want to double-check your levels via a professional test anyway.
While at-home kits can provide a good baseline for starting a conversation with a provider, doctor-administered tests are likely more accurate.
When should I see my doctor about low testosterone?
Make an appointment with a healthcare professional if your test results show low testosterone or if you’re experiencing symptoms of low T. They’ll probably want to check again using a more reliable method to be sure.
Who should do testosterone testing?
You may need to check your testosterone levels if you’re experiencing any symptoms associated with low T, regardless of your age or sex assigned at birth.
Keeping an eye on your testosterone levels is also important for transgender men and transmasculine people who are using hormone replacement therapy as part of their transition.
Trans folks should check their levels every 3 months for the first year that they’re on HRT and every 6–12 months afterward.
How do I choose the right home testosterone test for me?
Many different factors go into choosing an at-home test, such as:
Would you rather avoid a finger prick?
Do you have a budget?
Are you on a time crunch?
You may also want to look at reviews to see if other people have found that certain brands provide better accuracy than others.
Also, certain brands may not be able to deliver results to certain states, so make sure you live in a state where the results of at-home kits can eventually be sent to you.
Does insurance cover at-home testosterone tests?
Health insurance plans don’t generally cover at-home tests. Most insurers prefer that you undergo laboratory testing in a doctor’s office if you have symptoms of low T.
However, you may be able to pay using a Flexible Spending Account (FSA) or Health Savings Account (HSA). You can also check with your insurance provider to see if you’re eligible for reimbursement.
Having low testosterone levels may be a regular part of your aging process. Alternately, you might have a condition that’s causing your levels to drop.
While at-home kits may provide some insight into your levels, the best solution is to work with a healthcare professional that you trust to get an accurate diagnosis and learn about your treatment options.
Mon, 06 Feb 2023 10:00:00 -0600entext/htmlhttps://www.healthline.com/health/testosterone-test-kitsKillexams : RSA Security explores $2 bln-plus sale of Archer -sources
Jan 18 (Reuters) - RSA Security LLC, the former cyber security division of Dell Technologies Inc (DELL.N), is exploring a sale of its risk and compliance software unit Archer for more than $2 billion, according to people familiar with the matter.
RSA is working with investment banks Morgan Stanley (MS.N) and Goldman Sachs Group Inc (GS.N) on an auction for Archer, which has attracted interest from other companies and buyout firms, the sources said.
Archer generated $220 million in revenue last year and is growing profitably, added the sources, who requested anonymity because the matter is confidential.
Spokespeople for Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs declined to comment, while RSA did not respond to a request for comment.
The potential sale represents the latest in a string of deals involving RSA. Private equity firm Symphony Technology Group (STG), Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, and Carlyle Group Inc's (CG.O) investment arm AlpInvest Partners acquired the company from Dell for $2.075 billion in 2020.
View 2 more stories
Clearlake Capital, another private equity firm, invested in RSA the following year.
In 2021, RSA cut a deal with Reed Taussig, the head of its fraud prevention software business Outseer, to spin it off as an independent company. Last year, RSA sold a majority stake in its events business, RSA Conference, to private equity firm Crosspoint Capital Partners for an undisclosed amount.
Archer, headquartered in Bedford, Massachusetts, is a governance, risk and compliance software platform with over 15,000 users globally. RSA's other business divisions include identity and access management platform SecureID and threat detection and response software platform NetWitness.
Archer is not the only risk management software vendor up for sale in the United States. Reuters reported last month that private equity firm BC Partners is exploring the sale of a stake in Navex Global Inc that could value the company at more than $3 billion.
Reporting by Milana Vinn in New York
Editing by Matthew Lewis
Wed, 18 Jan 2023 10:08:00 -0600Milana Vinnentext/htmlhttps://www.reuters.com/markets/deals/rsa-security-explores-2-bln-plus-sale-archer-sources-2023-01-18/Killexams : Almost 50k Learner drivers to wait 19 weeks for a test, says RSA
Almost 50k Learner drivers to wait 19 weeks for a test, says RSA
The national average waiting time for a driving test is currently 19 weeks, almost double the RSA’s target.
LAST UPDATE|Feb 1st 2023, 5:30 PM
THE CEO OF the Road Safety Authority told the Oireachtas Transport committee that there are currently 47,364 learners waiting to sit a driving test and a 19-week national average waiting time for an appointment.
Sam Waide said this morning that the RSA’s target waiting time is 10 weeks and that the group is currently providing an average of 4,000 tests per week, up from 3,000 in October 2023.
“However the resource level is not enough, the current staffing level will neither reduce the backlog of driving tests nor will it meet the projected future demands for the service based on the learner permit demand,” he said.
Waide said beyond 2023/24 the RSA projects that a permanent pool of 170 testers will be required to meet estimated future demand.
“The message I wish to tell our customers is we are doing everything we can to return the services to normal,” he said.
Waide and a representative from an NCT services contractor also addressed the lengthy waiting times facing drivers getting their NCT.
The average wait between booking an appointment and the next available appointment date is currently 27 days, compared to a pre-pandemic average of 12 days, the RSA has confirmed.
Data from December 2023 compiled by the National Car Testing Service showed that Kells in County Meath had the longest wait time of any NCT centre, at 42 days.
Waide apologised for the inconvenience these protracted wait times have caused drivers.
The service is currently provided at 49 test centres nationwide under a contract awarded to Applus Inspection Services Ireland Ltd. The deal is set to run until June 2030.
Applus’s country representative for Ireland, Mark Synnott, also spoke to the committee.
Over 35,000 tests per week are currently being carried out according to the latest data on NCTs – that is up from 28,000 average in the last three months of 2023. However, there are approximately 375,000 vehicles overdue with their NCT.
This is 170,000 above the norm for this time of year, Waide said.
“Covid caused significant staff absenteeism levels at test centres and in the call centre,” he said.
“There were also very high levels of customer no-shows and late cancellations, reduced availability of new cars has meant there are more older cars in the Irish fleet.
Synnott addressed the pandemic’s impact on staffing within the industry, as well as the actions taken by Applus to rectify the current NCT delays.
In his opening statement, Synnott said that 2,500 vehicles do not show up for their appointment each week and a further 1,000 cancel just before the test.
That’s a combined 3,500 vehicles each and every week foregoing their appointment and looking for a new one.”
He also explained how vehicles tend to be registered in the first few months of each year, meaning that quarter one of any year will have the largest demand for testing.
Synnott added that the NCTS managed this demand surge from 2016 to 2020 by proactively getting ahead of the demand curve but have been behind that curve and struggling to catch-up since the pandemic.
The beginning of 2023 saw a significant amount of Covid-19 transmission, which led to disruption in testing and caused a significant knock-on effect, increasing wait times, he told the committee.
According to Applus, 113 inspectors left the company during or after the pandemic, while the number of vehicles that required testing increased significantly.
However the company has since hired 124 new inspectors, including 44 recruited from the Philippines, the Applus representative explained. The company says it now employs the highest volumes of vehicle inspectors in the history of the NCTS.
Tue, 31 Jan 2023 17:32:00 -0600View all articlesentext/htmlhttps://www.thejournal.ie/nct-delay-apology-at-transport-committee-5984185-Feb2023/Killexams : Quantum computers won't break RSA encryption any time soon
Modern encryption algorithms like RSA 2048 will remain safe from decryption by quantum computers for the foreseeable future, according to scientists from Fujitsu.
The researchers used the company’s Fugaku supercomputer and its 39 bit quantum simulator to simulate a quantum-based attack on RSA using Shor’s algorithm.
They found that to factor a composite number of 2048 bits would require around 10,000 qubits, 2.23 trillion quantum gates, and “a quantum circuit depth of 1.8 trillion”, Fujitsu said in a statement.
The researchers also found a sufficiently-large fault-tolerant quantum computer would need 104 days to crack RSA.
While warning against complacency, senior director of data and security research at Fujitsu Dr Tetsuya Izu said: “Our research demonstrates that quantum computing doesn’t pose an immediate threat to existing cryptographic methods”.
US academic Peter Shor proposed his algorithm for using quantum computers to attack cryptography in 1994.
Fujitsu was able to factor RSA-type integers from 15 to 511.
The researchers then generated quantum circuits to factor composite numbers from 10 bits to 25 bits, and used the results to estimate what would be needed to factor a 2048 bit composite number.
The research is to be presented at this week’s 2023 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security (SCIS 2023) in Kitakyushu City in southern Japan.
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