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ISA offers a variety of resources to help you prepare for the Certified Automation Professional (CAP®) exam.
A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge is the primary text resource for the CAP test and provides a complete overview of all technical topics. Order the Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge.
The CAP Study Guide is a comprehensive self-study resource that contains a list of the CAP domains and tasks, 75 review Q&A complete with justifications. References that were used for each study guide question are also provided with the question. The Study Guide also includes a recommended list of publications that you can use to do further study on specific domains. Order the CAP Study Guide.
A CAP review course is available in several formats as preparation for taking the certification exam. This course is offered by ISA and can also be offered at your location.
ISA also has a variety of training courses that would be helpful in preparing for CAP. Visit the Automation Professional Training page for a complete list.
Questions on the test were derived from the real practice of automation professionals as outlined in the CAP Role Delineation Study and job task analysis. Using interviews, surveys, observation, and group discussions, ISA worked with automation professionals to delineate critical job components to develop test specifications to determine the number of questions related to each domain and task tested. This rigorous program development and ongoing maintenance process ensures that CAP certification accurately reflects the skills and knowledge needed to excel as an automation professional.
The following six questions were taken from the CAP test question item bank and serve as examples of the question type and question content found on the CAP exam.
|Question Number||Correct Answer||Exam Content Outline|
|1||A||Domain 1, Task 4|
|2||C||Domain 2, Task 2|
|3||B||Domain 3, Task 3|
|4||B||Domain 4, Task 7|
|5||C||Domain 5, Task 5|
|6||A||Domain 6, Task 2|
Designed by the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA) and administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Series 65 is an test and securities license required for individuals to act as investment advisers in the US.
The Series 65 exam, known formally as the Uniform Investment Adviser Law Examination, covers laws, regulations, ethics, and various subjects important to the role of a financial adviser.
Successful completion of the Series 65 test is designed to qualify candidates as investment adviser representatives (IARs) in their home states. As an IAR, advisors must act in a fiduciary capacity, offering investment advice to clients for a fee.
Passing the Series 65 exam, formally known as the Uniform Investment Advisor Law Exam, is the only requirement for becoming an IAR. There are no prerequisites, and candidates do not need to be sponsored by an investment firm to sit for the exam, but they need to file a Form U10 (Form U4 for brokers) and pay the $187 test fee.
The Series 65 test includes 130 questions that cover subjects determined to be necessary to understand in order to provide investment advice to clients. These include questions on the subjects of economics, financial markets, investment vehicles, investment strategies, analysis, and ethics.
If you are not charging a fee and you do not regularly provide advice on securities, then you most likely do not need to get your Series 65 license. Other FINRA-administered qualification examinations include the Series 3 National Commodities Futures (NCFE), Series 7 General Securities Representative (GS), and Series 63 Uniform Securities Agent State Law.
Financial professionals who have successfully passed the Series 65 test may not act as investment advisers until licensed and registered in their state.
The Series 65 examination contains 130 multiple-choice questions. Candidates have 180 minutes to complete the exam. Candidates must get 94 of the 130 questions correct to pass (a score of 72.3%).
Test takers must schedule an test at a qualified testing center, where they are provided with a basic four-function electronic calculator. Only this calculator may be used during the exam. Dry-erase boards and markers are also provided for candidates. No reference materials of any kind are permitted in the test room, and there are severe penalties for those who are caught cheating or attempting to cheat.
An individual's firm can schedule a candidate to take the test by filing Form U4 and paying the $175 examination fee. If an individual is not firm-registered, the candidate uses Form U10 to request and pay for the exam.
NASAA provides updated information on the exam's content on its website. The test is structured as follows:
NASAA updated questions on the Series 65 test in light of 2018 changes to the tax code. Tax-related questions appearing on the exams starting in Jan. 2019 reflect the tax code changes.
There are several resources in book form or online to help study and prepare for the Series 65 exam. Candidates are encouraged to devote between 50-70 hours to studying for the exam. Unlike many other securities exams, preparing for the Series 65 exam primarily involves memorizing rules and laws. People with good recall might require less preparation time than those who struggle with recall. Regardless, some test sections are more challenging than others, especially for people with no background in securities.
In addition, Investopedia has reviewed several of the best Series 65 test prep courses, which you can find here.
The NASAA offers three exams: the Series 65; Series 63; and Series 66.
The Series 65 was the first test created by NASAA back in 1989, used to evaluate the competency of individuals who wanted to engage in commission or fee-based investment advisory services, such as being a financial advisor or RIA. At the time it was launched, it focused primarily on the Uniform Securities Act, NASAA rules, and ethical practices in the securities industry.
The Series 63 was developed to qualify candidates who wished to work in the securities industry within a state and to sell investment products, such as stocks, mutual funds, variable annuities, and unit investment trusts. In other words, to execute trades rather than deliver out financial advice. The test covers the principles of state securities regulations and laws, and is formally known as the Uniform Securities Agent State Law Examination.
The Series 66 is a newer NASAA test that combines subject matter from both the Series 63 and Series 65, and is fittingly known as the Combined State Law Exam. Test-takers of the Series 66 must also take the FINRA Series 7 licensing test (which is not a co-requisite of the Series 63 or 65, although many individuals will still need the Series 7 to legally operate).
If you only have a Series 65 license, you can deliver financial advice but you cannot sell securities, execute trades on behalf of clients, or manage portfolios. To do so, you will also need to pass the FINRA Series 7 exam, which is more intensive
No, the Series 65 license does not expire as long as you are actively working in the financial services industry. If you leave the industry for more than two years, your new employer may require you to pass the Series 65 test again.
No. To sit for the Series 65 exam, a candidate does not require sponsorship by a member firm.
The cost for sitting for the Series 65 test is currently $187. You'll need a passing score of 72%, but if you fail you can pay the test fee again and retake the test after 30 days.
Yes, but you will instead need to take the Series 7 and Series 66 exams.
The NASAA does not release official pass rates, however test preparation programs estimate that the pass rate is around 65-70% of test takers.
The Series 65, officially known as the Uniform Investment Adviser Law Exam, is designed to test an individual's knowledge and ability to advise clients in the area of investing and to discuss general financial concepts. The Series 65 test tests candidates' comprehension of financial concepts and qualifies them to deliver investment advice and charge a fee for doing so. Most state securities regulators have set the Series 65 as the minimum requirement to become an investment advisor representative (IAR).
The Series 7 test licenses the holder to sell all types of securities products except commodities and futures. Known formally as the General Securities Representative Qualification Examination, the Series 7 test and its licensing is administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).
Stockbrokers in the United States need to pass the Series 7 test to obtain a license to trade. The Series 7 exam focuses on investment risk, taxation, equity, and debt instruments; packaged securities, options, retirement plans, and interactions with clients for prospective securities industry professionals. This introductory-level test assesses a candidate’s knowledge of basic securities industry information including concepts fundamental to working in the industry.
The purpose of the Series 7 license is to set a level of competency for a registered representative or stockbroker to work in the securities industry. The Series 7 license is an essential requirement for an entry-level broker. The licensing test covers an extensive range of financial terms and subjects as well as securities regulations.
Candidates who pass the Series 7 test can trade many securities, such as stocks, mutual funds, options, municipal securities, and variable contracts. The Series 7 license does not cover selling real estate or life insurance products. In addition to obtaining the Series 7 license, many states require that registered representatives pass the Series 63 exam, also called the Uniform Securities Agent State Law Exam.
Since Oct. 1, 2018, Series 7 candidates are required to pass the Securities Industry Essentials (SIE) exam as well as the Series 7 test in order to receive the General Securities registration. According to FINRA, the SIE is an introductory-level test that "assesses a candidate’s knowledge of basic securities industry information including concepts fundamental to working in the industry, such as types of products and their risks; the structure of the securities industry markets, regulatory agencies and their functions; and prohibited practices." If you need more information on the SIE, FINRA's SIE test content outline provides more details.
Candidates who want to take the Series 7 test must be sponsored by a FINRA member firm or other applicable self-regulatory organization (SRO) member firm. The member firm must file a Form U4 (Uniform Application for Securities Industry Registration or Transfer Form) for the candidate to be registered for the licensing exam. Non-FINRA members should use the Test Enrollment Services System (TESS) in order to register for the exam. FINRA governs the activities of securities firms and registered brokers, ensuring that anyone who sells securities products is qualified and tested.
Candidates who want to take the Series 7 test must be sponsored by a FINRA member firm or other applicable self-regulatory organization (SRO) member firm.
The Series 7 is structured as follows:
The Series 7 test has 125 multiple choice questions, lasts 225 minutes, and cost $300. The passing score is 72%.
Prior to Oct. 1, 2018, the Series 7 test contained 250 questions covering five major job functions. The test duration was six hours, had no prerequisites, and cost $305. A score of 72% was required to pass.
FINRA does not provide candidates with any physical certificate as proof of test completion. Current or potential employers who wish to view proof of completion must access this information through FINRA's Central Registration Depository (CRD).
Completion of the Series 7 test is a prerequisite for many other securities licenses, such as the Series 24, which permits the candidate to supervise and manage broker activities.
More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, the operating system remains a force in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops (making up just over 2.4% of the overall desktop operating system market share in January 2019, according to NetMarketShare), it is extraordinarily strong on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of almost 54%.
IT professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and security. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.
The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an interesting mix of distribution- or brand-agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using, and mastering the Linux operating system environment and all the many bells and whistles it supports.
The results of a job search we conducted on several popular job posting sites show which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring new employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this table reflects those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking in the U.S.
|GCUX (SANS GIAC)||30||30||55||12||127|
|Oracle Linux OCA||27||31||33||12||103|
|Oracle Linux OCP||61||69||69||25||224|
|RHCA (Red Hat)||89||102||190||38||419|
|RHCE (Red Hat)||467||553||754||267||2,041|
|RHCSA (Red Hat)||417||504||667||241||1,829|
We found that for nearly every certification category listed above, the number of national jobs postings mentioning that certification has increased, in some cases substantially, since we surveyed the same job sites a year ago. Linux system administrators and engineers can expect average earnings in the low $70s and upward, depending on the job role. PayScale lists $70,194 as the average salary for Linux system administrators ($52,000/low and $101,000/high). Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $68,884, Linux system engineers at $99,348 and senior Linux system engineers at $122,071.
The Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) program is part of SANS, a highly regarded source of instruction and research in the information security field. SANS also provides breaking news, operates a security alert service and serves on all kinds of government, research and academic information security task forces, working groups and industry organizations.
The SANS GIAC program encompasses 37 information security certifications across several categories, such as cyber defense, penetration testing, incident response and forensics, management, audit, legal, developer and industrial control systems. The GIAC Certified UNIX Security Administrator (GCUX) falls under its Cyber Defense category, and aims at professionals who install, configure, monitor, secure and audit both Unix and Linux systems.
GIAC certifications must be renewed every four years by earning 36 continuing professional experience (CPE) credits. Also, credential holders must pay a certification maintenance fee of $429 every four years.
|GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator (GCUX)|
Prerequisites & Required Courses
|None; SEC506: Securing Linux/Unix training recommended (classroom, on demand, self-study or private; $6,610)|
Number of Exams
|One test (75 questions, two hours, minimum passing score 68%)|
Cost per Exam
|$1,899 without training (called a GIAC certification attempt; includes two free practice exams) $769 as part of a training course $769 retake fee $429 certification renewal
Exams administered by Pearson VUE.
|Practice tests available on the GIAC test preparation page (two tests included in test fee; additional practice questions are $159 each). No GCUX-specific study guides found; GIAC recommends searching for self-study materials based on the GCUX objectives’ knowledge areas and getting practical experience.|
CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry level in many IT niches. This nonprofit has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market reach and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.
One great example is the organization’s partnership with the Linux Professional Institute (LPI), which resulted in the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential. This unique certification replaced the original CompTIA Linux+ certification in 2010 and uses the same two exams required for LPIC-1 certification.
As a result of this partnership, IT professionals who are serious about Linux can earn both the Linux+ credential and the LPIC-1 at the same time. Candidates must first earn the Linux+ credential and then submit a request to CompTIA asking that their results be sent to LPI to obtain the LPIC-1 certification. CompTIA test records are confidential, so candidates must request that their records be forwarded to LPI when taking the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI exams.
Earning the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI requires candidates to pass two exams. The first covers system architecture, installation and package management, GNU and Unix commands, devices, file systems and standard file system hierarchies. The second test digs into command shells, scripting and data management, user interfaces and desktops, administrative tasks and activities, basic system services, networking fundamentals and security topics. The CompTIA Linux+ Beta test (XK1-004) closed as of October 22, 2018, though candidates who took the test prior to the end date can still access those scores and apply a passing grade to their Linux+ certification. The replacement Linux+ 104 test based on this beta test will become publicly available in April of 2019.
Note that the Linux+ credential is valid for life.
|CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI|
Prerequisites & Required Courses
Recommended: CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and 12 months of Linux administration experience
Number of Exams
|Two exams: LX0-103 and LX0-104 (60 multiple-choice questions each, 90 minutes, 500 required out of 200 to 800 scale to pass). Note that the LX0-104 Beta test is no longer offered as of October 22, 2018; the replacement 104 test becomes publicly available in April of 2019.|
Cost per Exam
|$200 per exam; prices vary by geography|
|CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options, including links to study guides, test crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster, and more. Additional third-party reference and review materials can be found on Amazon.|
The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) started up in October of 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux subjects and technologies. Given the organization’s distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that’s available in many forms and flavors in today’s marketplace.
The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:
In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS, and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.
LPI’s latest certification is the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer, which recognizes the effective use of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the single test lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.
LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs, and for those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT pros and in demand among IT employers.
|LPIC-1: Linux Administrator
LPIC-2: Linux Engineer
LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional
Prerequisites & Required Courses
|LPIC-1: None, Linux Essentials recommended
LPIC-2: Active LPIC-1 certification
LPIC-3: Active LPIC-2 certification plus completion of one of the 300 series specialty exams
Training is recommended but not required
Number of Exams
|LPIC-1: Exam 101-500 and Exam 102-500
LPIC-3: One of the 300 series exams: Mixed Environment (Exam 300-100)
Security (Exam 303-200)
Virtualization and High Availability (Exam 304-200)
Cost per Exam
|$200 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. Linux ID required to register.|
|Study guides, courseware knowledge packs, eLearning courses, test crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, Linux Academy subscriptions and more are available at LPI test Preparation, LPI Marketplace and Amazon.|
When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a rich and deep UNIX tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris almost immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.
Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any kind of UNIX roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory prerequisites to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.
As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle’s are most appealing to those who work with or around that distribution, or who wish to work for employers who use those distributions.
|Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator
Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 6 System Administrator
Prerequisites & Required Courses
|OCA: No prerequisites. Recommended training: Oracle Linux System Administration OCP: OCA Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator or Linux Administrator Certified Associate (now retired). Recommended training: Oracle Linux System Administration|
Number of Exams
|OCA: One exam, 1Z0-100 Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administration (150 minutes, 80 questions, 61% to pass) OCP: One exam, 1Z0-105 Oracle Linux 6 Advanced System Administrator (150 minutes, 97 questions, 61% to pass)|
Cost per Exam
|Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials, with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket. Start with Amazon searches — check test IDs 1Z0-100 and 1Z0-105 to get a sense for what’s available.|
Note: Though there is now an OCA and OCP test available for Oracle Linux 7 System Administrator, Oracle has yet to announce this new certification or release the details of new Linux 7-based certification tests for OCA and OCP candidates.
The Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is a certification available for those who sell, design, configure and implement Oracle Linux 6 solutions. Though any candidate can complete this certification, it is most typically achieved by Oracle partner implementation personnel with strong foundational experience in Linux and previous field experience implementing Linux 6.
If there’s one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it’s got to be Red Hat. The company has major market presence and serious duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.
Red Hat offers a typical administrator, engineer, architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. All exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance based and last two hours or longer.
The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that all come with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:
Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the business world, the RHCA certification is an excellent choice for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already work with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification choice as well.
|Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)
Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)
Prerequisites & Required Courses
|RHCSA: No prerequisites Recommended training:
RHCE: RHCSA credential Recommended training:
Same as for RHCSA, plus
Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) ($3,400)
RHCE-certified (Infrastructure track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCE certification must pass five additional exams from the Infrastructure track below.
RHCJD/RHCEMD-certified (Enterprise Applications track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCJD or an RHCEMD certification must pass five additional exams from the Enterprise Applications track below.
Number of Exams
|RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) test (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) test (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:
RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) test (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) test (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:
RHCEMDs and RHCJD must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA certification in Enterprise Applications:
Cost per Exam
|$400 each ($2,000 total RHCA test costs)|
|Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can be located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes all online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can expect to pay $5,500 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a Standard Subscription. Study guides are on Amazon.|
Outside the top five Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, other Linux certifications may be worthy of your time and attention.
The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization’s small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) and the Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE).
IBM continues to offer a handful of Linux-related certifications. One certification of interest is the Certified Database Administrator, which continues to be in demand for those running DB2 on Linux, Unix and Windows systems.
Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, say that certifications can be an important ingredient in a job candidate’s qualifications. But interviewers should also pay close attention to how many Linux systems candidates have set up, managed or used to get a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.
In other words, when you see a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they’re not looking for people who’ve installed and used Linux at home or in a small business setting; they’re looking for professionals who’ve set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data center environment, with lots of complex networking and services coming into the mix.
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Over the course of Harvard Business Review’s century-long life, its articles have introduced leaders to new ideas and tools designed to keep them on the cutting edge of running a successful business. During this period, management has evolved from a relatively specialized trade discipline to a field characterized by an ever-increasing ambition to explain how organizations function and how they can be improved.
For the magazine’s 100th anniversary, we decided to take a close look at the nature of HBR’s coverage during its history, paying particular attention to patterns of change. The patterns we discerned, we felt, might serve as a revealing and interesting proxy for how the theory (and, to some extent, the practice) of management has changed during the past century. In particular, by studying which subject areas gained or lost traction over time, we hoped to shed some light on the evolving nature of the challenges faced by managers across the decades. Which managerial ideas have actually been most relevant for practice? Has the set of “relevant” ideas evolved over time?
To perform our analysis, we first digitized every article that HBR published from its first issue, in 1922, to the last issue of 2021 — 14,777 articles in all. We then employed machine-learning techniques, statistical text analysis, and a healthy dose of our judgment to identify significant management terms, grouping them into six managerial subject areas: finance & accounting, human resources, marketing, operations, organizations, and strategy. (For more detail on our methodology, see here.) Together, these subject areas loosely correspond to the subjects taught in the classic MBA curriculum.
In analyzing our data, we observed distinct changes in emphasis over the course of HBR’s history. We’ve illustrated those changes in this animated time line. You can also see their evolution in the chart “A Century of HBR Topics.”
As these illustrations show, we found three main patterns in our analysis: an early preponderance of language relating to finance & accounting and operations, followed by a steady and gradual decline; a steady and substantial increase in language relating to strategy and marketing; and a persistent and substantial share of language relating to organizations and human resources (HR).
These findings suggest that HBR has gradually shifted its focus away from the tangible aspects of management, such as how to allocate financial resources or organize production, and toward the intangible ones, such as how to build a sustainable strategy or develop a valuable customer experience. This pattern is consistent with what other scholars have found when studying the evolution of management ideas in the past century. In studies published in HBR and elsewhere, scholars have documented the growing demand for leaders with strong social skills (as opposed to just technical, administrative, and financial expertise) and the increasingly important role that intangibles are playing as drivers of value creation at the macroeconomic level.
We also found that HBR’s coverage fell into three main chronological periods. In its first few decades, the magazine focused most of its attention on concepts relevant to manufacturing and other large, capital-intensive industries and on the financial, operational, and organizational challenges they present. Aspects of management relating to the workforce came to the fore in the 1940s, as did the subject of collective bargaining, reflecting the growing importance of unions in mediating this relationship. Key terms during this period, and their corresponding categories, include:
1920s: Cost accounting (finance & accounting); industrial relations (organizations); inventory control, mass production (operations)
1930s: Capital structure (finance & accounting); brand (marketing)
1940s: Human resources (human resources); collective bargaining (organizations)
From the 1950s to the 1970s, HBR gradually shifted its attention toward new aspects of production — notably quality control — and began to focus on organizational structure, possibly reflecting the importance of conglomerates. The magazine’s focus on HR also evolved, with more coverage of how firms could relate to employees rather than to organized labor. In the 1960s and 1970s in particular, important new subjects emerged in personnel management, finance, and technology. Key terms, and their corresponding categories, include:
1950s: Interpersonal relationships (human resources); organizational structure (organizations); quality control (operations); customer behavior (marketing)
1960s: Performance appraisal (human resources); options (finance & accounting)
1970s: Corporate governance (finance & accounting); information systems (operations)
In accurate decades (the 1980s to 2021), HBR trained its attention on competition and strategy (especially in the 1980s) and on customer-centric marketing ideas. In the 1990s a new focus arose on the role of innovation, especially disruptive innovation, and on new structured managerial approaches to maximizing operational effectiveness and control, among them Six Sigma and the balanced scorecard. Similar trends were apparent in the 2000s and 2010s, with new managerial frameworks for strategy coming into play. Both marketing and innovation as a form of strategic differentiation grew consistently in importance. Key terms, and their corresponding categories, include:
1980s: Customer satisfaction, marketing strategy (marketing); competitive advantage, strategic management, strategic planning (strategy)
1990s: Balanced scorecard (finance & accounting); Six Sigma (operations); disruptive innovation, core competency (strategy); market segmentation (marketing)
2000s: Risk management (finance & accounting); value chain, blue ocean strategy (strategy)
2010s: Customer experience (marketing); open innovation, value proposition (strategy)
Of note in this time line is a gradual increase in HBR’s coverage of marketing over the years and the explosive emergence of strategy. We also see coverage moving away from generic subjects and toward specific managerial frameworks and ideas — for example, from mass production to Six Sigma in operations, from cost accounting to the balanced scorecard in finance & accounting, and from brand to market segmentation in marketing. One way to interpret these changes is that HBR, and perhaps the management discussion more broadly, has increasingly shifted its attention toward pragmatic ideas with immediate applicability within organizations.
It’s likely that many factors have helped bring about this shift. Organizations have grown bigger, more diverse, and more complex, requiring different kinds of leadership and management. New technologies have arrived, changing how and where work can be done. The role of managers has changed dramatically. And management science itself has matured: Many of the financial and operational questions that once dominated the attention of leaders and scholars are now, for better or for worse, perceived to be less topical. In their place have arisen new questions, such as how best to adapt to organizational complexity, globalization, the diversification of the workforce, and the advent of remote work.
As HBR moves into its second century, we look forward to finding out what guidance it will offer companies and leaders as they grapple with these questions, and others that have yet to come to the fore.
Note: This article builds on ongoing work conducted with Michael B. Christensen, M.J. Yang, and Jan Rivkin.
The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.
Sep 23, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Global “Exam Management Software Market” (2022-2028) report offers development drivers, significant difficulties, size, share, accurate trends and open doors that will affect the business patterns over the gauge timetable. It precisely offers the necessary information, as well as advanced analysis, to assist in developing the best business strategy and determining the best path for maximum growth for the market's participants. The report also expands on complete details regarding the supply and industry analysis, development, including by major key players, and the industry business sphere. Also complete structure of sales, cost, margin, revenue.
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Market Analysis: Global test Management Software Market
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the global test Management Software market size is estimated to be worth USD million in 2021 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD million by 2028 with a CAGR of % during the forecast period 2022-2028. Fully considering the economic change by this health crisis, the Europe test Management Software market is estimated at USD million in 2022, while the United States and China are forecast to reach USD million and USD million by 2028, respectively. The proportion of the United States is % in 2022, while Chinese percentage is %, and it is predicted that China market share will reach in 2028, trailing a CAGR of % through the analysis period. As for the Europe test Management Software landscape, Germany is projected to reach USD million by 2028. and in Asia, the notable markets are Japan and South Korea, CAGR is % and % respectively for the next 6-year period.
Below 50 Grit accounting for % of the test Management Software global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a revised % CAGR from 2022 to 2028. While Concrete segment is altered to an % CAGR throughout this forecast period and will hold a share about % in 2028.
This report focuses on test Management Software volume and value at the global level, regional level, and company level. From a global perspective, this report represents overall test Management Software market size by analyzing historical data and future prospect. Regionally, this report focuses on several key regions: North America, Europe, China and Japan, etc.
The Global test Management Software market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2028. In 2021, the market is growing at a constant rate and with the rising acquisition of strategies by leading players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.
Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.
According to our latest study, due to COVID-19 pandemic, the global test Management Software market size is estimated to be worth in 2021 and is forecast to a readjusted size by 2028 during review period. Online Sales accounting the test Management Software global market in 2021, is projected to value by 2028, growing in next six years. While test Management Software segment is altered between 2022 and 2028.
Moreover, it helps new businesses perform a positive assessment of their business plans because it covers a range of subjects market participants must be aware of to remain competitive. The readers in the section will understand how the test Management Software market scenario changed across the globe during the pandemic, post-pandemic and Russia-Ukraine War. The study is done keeping in view the changes in aspects such as demand, consumption, transportation, consumer behavior, supply chain management, export and import, and production. The industry experts have also highlighted the key factors that will help create opportunities for players and stabilize the overall industry in the years to come.
Report covers Impact of Coronavirus COVID-19: Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to almost every country around the globe with the World Health Organization declaring it a public health emergency. The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the test Management Software market in 2021. The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought effects on many aspects, like flight cancellations; travel bans and quarantines; restaurants closed; all indoor/outdoor events restricted; over forty countries state of emergency declared; massive slowing of the supply chain; stock market volatility; falling business confidence, growing panic among the population, and uncertainty about future.
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Exam Management Software Market - Competitive and Segmentation Analysis:
Furthermore, providing an overview of successful top marketing strategies, industry opportunities, contributions, and accurate developments of top leading companies, the report also offers a complete overview of leading companies' past and present performance. Several methodologies and analyses are used in the research report to provide in-depth and accurate information about the test Management Software Market
Key Indicators Analyzed● Market Players and Competitor Analysis: The report covers the key players of the industry including Company Profile, Product Specifications, Production Capacity/Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin 2017-2028 and Sales with a thorough analysis of the market's competitive landscape and detailed information on vendors and comprehensive details of factors that will challenge the growth of major market vendors. ● Global and Regional Market Analysis: The report includes Global and Regional market status and outlook 2017-2028. Further the report provides break down details about each region and countries covered in the report. Identifying its sales, sales volume and revenue forecast. With detailed analysis by types and applications. ● Market Trends: Market key trends which include Increased Competition and Continuous Innovations. ● Opportunities and Drivers: Identifying the Growing Demands and New Technology ● Porters Five Force Analysis: The report provides with the state of competition in industry depending on five basic forces: threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitute products or services, and existing industry rivalry.
Competitive Landscape and test Management Software Market Share Analysis
The test Management Software market competitive landscape provides details by a competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, production capacities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product width and breadth, application dominance. The above data points provided are only related to the companies’ focus related to the test Management Software market.
List of TOP KEY PLAYERS in test Management Software Market Report are -
● MasterSoft Group Pty Ltd.
● Scientia Ltd.
● Capterra, Inc.
● Advanta Innovations
The test Management Software Market is Segmented by Types:
The test Management Software Market is Segmented by Applications:
● IT and Telecommunication
Research Methodology: Global test Management Software Market:
Exam Management Software collection and base year analysis is done using test Management Software modules with large demo sizes. The market data is analyzed and estimated using test Management Software market statistical and logical models. Also market share analysis and key trend analysis are the major success factors in the market report. The key research methodology used in research team is data split which involves data mining, analysis of the impact of data variables on the market, and primary (industry expert) validation. Apart from this, data models include vendor position grid, time analysis, overview of the industry, test Management Software share and trends analysis.
Exam Management Software Market Technology Analysis:
In the global coronavirus pandemic, remote working had been introduced as a trend. But with the various virus variants and waves hitting the global locations, remote working has become a necessity to keep up with the trends and maintain a proper flow of the supply chain and production mechanism. With the rising investment in the research and development department and activities, the test Management Software solutions are acting as an efficient resource that goes easy on formatting. To collaborate motivation with efficiency and personal goals with the organizational test Management Software industry objectives, the test Management Software market size is implementing strategies so that there is a feeling of belongingness and recognition integrated with the push and need to come up with comprehensive ideas for the global growth of the market during the forecast period that ends in the year 2028.
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Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share and growth Rate of test Management Software in these regions, from 2021 to 2027, covering● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)
Global test Management Software Market Regional Analysis
Geographically, the global test Management Software Market is segmented into North America, Europe, South America, Europe, Asia Pacific and the Middle East and Africa. Research has a leading market share of in 2019. The market volume of test Management Software in Southeast Asia is largely connected to downstream demand.
The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of the Global test Management Software Market including all the stakeholders of the test Management Software industry. The past and current status of the industry with forecasted market share, size and accurate and future trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all the aspects of the marketing 4.0 industry with a dedicated study of key players that includes industry top leading players, new consumers, shareholders.
Reasons to Get this Report:● In an insight outlook, this research report has dedicated to several quantities of analysis industry research (global industry trends) and test Management Software Market share analysis of high players, along with company profiles, and which collectively include about the fundamental opinions regarding the market landscape; emerging and high-growth sections of Iron-Based test Management Software Market; high-growth regions; and market drivers, restraints, and also market chances. ● The analysis covers test Management Software Market and its advancements across different industry verticals as well as regions. It targets estimating the current market size and growth potential of the global test Management Software Market across sections such as also application and representatives. ● Additionally, the analysis also has a comprehensive review of the crucial players on the test Management Software Market together side their company profiles, SWOT analysis, latest advancements, and business plans.
However, the potential startups that are still in the development phase are struggling with the trends and changes introduced by the pandemic. Also, low investments and lack of availability of capital are barring them to seek test Management Software solutions and implement them across various verticals for enhanced functioning of different departments and sections. This is likely to present major market restraints during the forecast period that ends in 2028.
This test Management Software Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions● Which Manufacturing Technology is used for test Management Software? What Developments Are Going On in That Technology? Which Trends Are Causing These Developments? ● Who Are the Global Key Players in This test Management Software Market? What are Their Company Profile, Their Product Information, and Contact Information? ● What Was Global Market Status of test Management Software Market? What Was Capacity, Production Value, Cost and PROFIT of test Management Software Market? ● What Is Current Market Status of test Management Software Industry? What’s Market Competition in This Industry, Both Company, and Country Wise? What’s Market Analysis of test Management Software Market by Taking Applications and Types in Consideration? ● What Are Projections of Global test Management Software Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export? ● What Is test Management Software Market Chain Analysis by Upstream Raw Materials and Downstream Industry?
An exhaustive and professional study of the global test Management Software market report has been completed by industry professionals and presented in the most particular manner to present only the details that matter the most. The report mainly focuses on the most dynamic information of the global market.
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Major Points from Table of Contents:
1 test Management Software Market Overview
1.1 test Management Software Product Scope
1.2 test Management Software Segment by Type
1.3 test Management Software Segment by Application
1.4 test Management Software Market Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2 test Management Software Estimates and Forecasts by Region
2.1 Global test Management Software Market Size by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
2.2 Global test Management Software Market Scenario by Region (2017-2021)
2.3 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Region (2022-2028)
2.4 Geographic Market Analysis: Market Facts and Figures
3 Global test Management Software Competition Landscape by Players
3.1 Global Top test Management Software Players by Sales (2017-2021)
3.2 Global Top test Management Software Players by Revenue (2017-2021)
3.3 Global test Management Software Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) and (based on the Revenue in test Management Software as of 2020)
3.4 Global test Management Software Average Price by Company (2017-2021)
3.5 Manufacturers test Management Software Manufacturing Sites, Area Served, Product Type
3.6 Manufacturers Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
4 Global test Management Software Market Size by Type
4.1 Global test Management Software Historic Market Review by Type (2017-2021)
4.2 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Type (2022-2028)
4.2.3 Global Price Forecast by Type (2022-2028)
5 Global test Management Software Market Size by Application
5.1 Global test Management Software Historic Market Review by Application (2017-2021)
5.2 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Application (2022-2028)
6 North America test Management Software Market Facts and Figures
6.1 North America test Management Software by Company
6.2 North America test Management Software Breakdown by Type
6.3 North America test Management Software Breakdown by Application
7 Europe test Management Software Market Facts and Figures
8 China test Management Software Market Facts and Figures
9 Japan test Management Software Market Facts and Figures
10 Southeast Asia test Management Software Market Facts and Figures
11 India test Management Software Market Facts and Figures
12 Company Profiles and Key Figures in test Management Software Business
13 test Management Software Manufacturing Cost Analysis
13.1 test Management Software Key Raw Materials Analysis
13.1.1 Key Raw Materials
13.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price Trend
13.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
13.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
13.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of test Management Software
13.4 test Management Software Industrial Chain Analysis
14 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
14.1 Marketing Channel
14.2 test Management Software Distributors List
14.3 test Management Software Customers
15 Market Dynamics
15.1 test Management Software Market Trends
15.2 test Management Software Drivers
15.3 test Management Software Market Challenges
15.4 test Management Software Market Restraints
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To view the original version on The Express Wire visit Exam Management Software Market Share 2022, Global Industry Size, Growth, Segments, Revenue, Manufacturers and 2028 Forecast Research Report
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Olivia says it doesn’t matter how you do your practice exams, as long as you do them and learn from them.
October 28 - Biology
October 31 - Psychology
November 8 - Chemistry
November 9 - Physics
November 10 - Environmental science
Voulgaris’ biology tips:
When Ben Ostermeyer, 18, was studying for his 2021 VCE exams, he was in and out of lockdown. It meant a lot of his study groups were online.
Ostermeyer, a former student of Whitefriars College in Donvale, scored a 50 in psychology and earned himself a premier’s award in the subject. He’s now studying speech pathology at the Australian Catholic University.
He leaned on his teachers, his friends and his mother to drill content before doing practice exams.
“I got other people involved. I studied with my mates and my mum and went through the content togther,” he says.
He did about 10 practice exams altogether, the first few of which he did open-book style to identify areas he needed to focus more on, before progressing to closed-book exams.
Although he didn’t use a timetable to study, Ostermeyer did make sure he did all his practice exams at the same time they were scheduled: 10am.
The psychology test includes multiple choice, short-answer questions and an extended-answer question. He says it was good to experiment with completing the different sections at different paces.
“In the exam, I found I spent more time on the multiple choice. In my practice exams I was flying through the multiple choice. I would recommend trying to do them at different paces,” he says.
He also recommends spending time studying research methods – hypotheses, independent variables and experiments.
“Just get in there, have a crack at it. I was little bit nervous. I was pretty confident going in because I put in a lot of work, so I knew that would put me in good stead.”
Both students advise getting a good night’s sleep before the test and taking time to relax, whether that’s by listening to music, doing puzzles or exercising.
Voulgaris says to remember that there are many pathways into your future career. “I’m at uni now. It’s a completely different landscape. No one cares what my ATAR was,” she says.
“I’m doing bio-med. You can do the same path through science. There are always options. You aren’t looking at it as a score that evaluates yourself. It’s just another tool to get where you need to go.”
Tips from assessors from previous science exams:
The Morning Edition newsletter is our guide to the day’s most important and interesting stories, analysis and insights. Sign up here.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) is one of the European donor agencies that have funded digital projects in Uganda around freedom of expression. Yet a criminal case in which Germany’s main development agency is suing one of its former employees threatens to birth a paradox.
The case involves Victor Ndyabagye, GIZ’s former security risk management advisor, who is accused of offensive communication under section 25 of the Computer Misuse Act. If found guilty, Mr Ndyabagye could be punished with “a fine not exceeding 24 currency points or imprisonment not exceeding one year or both.”
The rich irony in the case is that satirical novelist Kakwenza Rukirabashaija sought refuge in Germany after the state preferred charges of “disturbing the peace” of members of Uganda’s First Family.
Mr Ndyabagye’s trouble stems from a dossier—now part of court records—titled Who oversees checks and balances at GIZ Uganda and other donor partners. The former security risk management advisor said on August 4, 2021, he was told by James Macbeth Forbes, GIZ’s country director that “the position I held for seven years has been offered to the spouse of one of the development workers from Austria.”
“It’s very unfair for the unemployed Ugandans when an intern from Austria or Germany is hired as a consultant in nine months and given an expat contract in one year. One thing should be clear, this was retaliation for my standing up for the rights and benefits of national staff,” Mr Ndyabagye reasoned in a document uploaded onto the Internet, adding, “It doesn’t add up laying off a local security risk management advisor in Band 4 due to budget constraints while hiring another local and International security risk management advisor and outsourcing part of their work to a local security company.”
In August 2021, Mr Ndyabagye said five of his colleagues were given notice for termination. None, he added, “was given an exit interview in line with the national staff employment handbook.” He found it odd that “two of my colleagues will soon be replaced by Pakistani nationals who are also sisters.”
A driver, Mr Ndyabagye further wrote, “was terminated for giving feedback to a consultant that the country director should separate private from duty-related tasks.”
Mr Ndyabagye revealed that the country director had instructed the retrenched driver to “transport [his] alcohol” at a time that conflicted with other appointments. Elsewhere, a communications and public relations (PR) advisor in Band 4 was laid off “due to budget constraints” but GIZ went on to hire “a Band 3 and outsourc[ed] part of the role to a PR company.” All this didn’t add up, Mr Ndyabagye opined.
On August 11, 2021, GIZ responded by reporting the issue to the police. Mr Ndyabagye promptly had an offensive communication slapped on him. The Directorate of Public Prosecutions eventually sanctioned the file, revealing that Mr Ndyabagye disturbed the peace of Mr Forbes with no purpose of legitimate communication between August 6 and 10 in Kampala District.
Mr Ndyabagye was also accused of wilfully and repeatedly using electronic communication to disturb the peace of Carsten Blaich with no purpose of legitimate communication.
GIZ also opened civil proceedings against Mr Ndyabagye at the High Court’s Civil Division, accusing him of defamation. On December 12, 2021, Mr Jamson Karemani—the civil division’s deputy registrar— issued an injunction “restraining [Mr Ndyabagye] from further publishing or causing to be published the matters, statements and words that are subject of the main suit.”
In the main case that is gathering dust before Justice Emmanuel Baguma—the deputy of head civil division—GIZ accused Mr Ndyabagye of using his Twitter handle to spread his dossier, which they find “defamatory”.
“The defendant published the defamatory letter with the knowledge that it was false and malicious or with recklessness as to its truth or falsity,” GIZ said in its plaint, adding, “The defendant chose to publish the defamatory letter as a retribution for the plaintiff’s decision not to renew his contract and yet the plaintiff has discretion to determine whether or not to renew a contract of employment.”
It’s the criminal case at Buganda Road Court that has made inroads. Mr Forbes stated that Mr Ndyabagye used his dossier to accuse him of nepotism, racism, laying off people without reason; targeting single mothers, financing international terrorism; collaborating with corrupt immigration officials.
Mr Ndyabayge’s dossier, Mr Forbes added, was sent electronically as an email attachment to all GIZ staff. The same email attachment was dispatched to government officials such as the President as well as Finance and Internal Affairs ministries.
Mr Forbes also revealed that he was questioned by his supervisors at the GIZ head office, in Bonn Germany thanks to the email attachment. The police was asked to pick interest in the issue after Mr Forbes received an anonymous letter in which he was warned there were plans to ambush him by soldiers at the airport and cause harm to his family.
Sunday Monitor understands that during cross-examination, Mr Forbes said he wasn’t sure whether Mr Ndyabagye was the author of the anonymous letters.
On his part, Mr Blaich said he suspects Mr Ndyabagye sent an email to the Directorate of Citizenship and Immigration Control to revoke his work permit. He said that Mr Ndyabagye had sent out emails accusing him of making payments that finance terrorism and also release payments to briefcase companies.
Though he said charges were pressed after he received four anonymous letters, Mr Blaich said the letters only threatened Mr Forbes.
“There was no single email from Victor Ndyabagye that threatened me or any of my family members, but the charges were instituted because of the threats in the anonymous letters,” he said.
Mr Moses Baluku, the detective who investigated the cases, said whilst Mr Ndyabagye’s open dossier had no threatening content; the email the suspect wrote on August 6, 2021, accusing Mr Forbes of nepotism and abuse of office had disturbed his peace of mind.
The detective added that another letter sent to the Directorate of Citizenship and Immigration Control on October, 10, 2021, accusing Mr Blaich of financing terrorism disturbed his peace of mind.
Mr Baluku further noted that he could not verify the veracity of Mr Ndyabagye’s open dossier since “I never interviewed most of the GIZ staff about what Victor complained about.”
There are five ingredients under section 25 of the Computer Misuse Act that must be proved before establishing a prima facie case on the materials presented to the court. They include establishing that the accused wilfully and repeatedly used an electronic communication; the electronic communication was sent to the complainant(s); the communication disturbed or attempted to disturb the peace, quiet or privacy of the complainant(s); the accused had no purpose of legitimate communication with the complainants; and the accused is liable for electronic communication.
Mr Ndyabagye’s lawyers asked the court to dismiss the case on grounds that prosecution evidence didn’t reveal all the above ingredients.
“It is also clear from this section that, there is no requirement for the materials published to be false or cause harm to a person’s reputation, contrary to the evidence presented in court,” the lawyers say. “From the evidence of prosecution witness one [Forbes] and prosecution witness two [Blaich] as well as the exhibits tendered in court, it’s clear that the consequence of offensive communication was not sought—that’s disturbing the peace, quiet or privacy of the complainants even though the communication may have caused an angry reaction.”
The track record of the Buganda Road Court Chief Magistrate handling the matter doesn’t portend well for Mr Ndyabagye.
When deciding cases involving the Computer Misuse Act, Ms Gladys Kamasanyu, in 2018, summarily convicted and sentenced Brian Isiko—then a student of YMCA Jinja Branch—to two years in prison. This was after he was arraigned before her court on charges of offensive communication and cyberbullying.
Mr Isiko was accused of sending a volley of love messages by telephone to Sylvia Rwabwogo, then a Kabarole Woman lawmaker.
When Mr Isiko appealed, the High Court ordered for retrial having found that Kamasanyu failed to follow the laid-out procedures when the accused was taking his plea. The retrial suffered a stillbirth.
In 2019, Ms Kamasanyu sentenced Stella Nyanzi—an acerbic critic of President Museveni— to 18 months in prison. Nyanzi was deemed to have offended the President’s deceased mother, Esteri Kokundeka in a Facebook post that went viral.
A few months later, the High Court quashed Ms Kamasanyu’s findings, accusing her of sidestepping Nyanzi’s rights.
“I have carefully perused the proceedings of the lower court and I note with disquiet that while it is clear that the learned trial magistrate was alive to all legal requirements that ought to be followed in a criminal trial, the lower trial court adopted such bizarre proceedings in total disregard [of] … the standard required for the proper conduct of judicial powers as elucidated by Article 126 (1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda which entails the exercise of judicial powers by the courts to be in conformity with the law,” Justice Henry Peter Adonyo ruled.
Nyanzi has since fled to exile in Germany. On November 14, Ms Kamasanyu will yet again render her ruling in a Computer Misuse Act case when she determines Mr Ndyabagye’s case.
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